Integrating ‘Just-in-Time’ Learning in the Design of Mathematics Professional Development
Keywords:inquiry teaching, just-in-time learning, mathematics education, professional development, zones of enactment
This paper describes a professional development (PD) programme design integrating just-in-time learning (JITL) to support teachers to learn about and enact inquiry teaching. Through JITL, teachers are provided with support that is responsive and applicable to their needs. This case study reports on the professional journeys of three teachers who received JITL via online resources, face-to-face meetings, opportunities for community building within and across schools, and reflections on pupils’ reactions to learning mathematics through inquiry. Findings indicate that JITL embedded within PD facilitated teacher learning about inquiry enactment, since the PD was responsive to teachers’ immediate and contextual needs. We suggest that explicit attention to JITL is given in the design of teacher PD, providing support that is made readily available for teachers to access and utilise.
Anderson, R. D. (1996). Study of curriculum reform. U.S. Government Printing Office.
Askew, M., Brown, M., Rhodes, V., Johnson, D., & Wiliam, D. (1997). Effective teachers of numeracy: Final report to the teacher training agency. King's College.
Attard Tonna, M., & Shanks, R. (2017). The importance of environment for teacher professional learning in Malta and Scotland. European Journal of Teacher Education, 40(1), 91-109.
Back, J., Hirst, C., De Geest, E., Joubert, M., & Sutherland, R. (2009). Final report: Researching effective CPD in mathematics education. National Centre for Excellence in the Teaching of Mathematics.
Bannister, N. A. (2018). Theorizing collaborative mathematics teacher learning in communities of practice. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 49(2), 125-139.
Boyatzis, R. (1998). Transforming qualitiative information: Thematic analysis and code development. SAGE Publications.
Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77–101.
British Educational Research Association. (2018). Ethical guidelines for educational research (4th ed.). Author. https://www.bera.ac.uk
Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 822–848.
Bryk, A. S., & Schneider, B. (2002). Trust in schools: A core resource for improvement. Russell Sage.
Calleja, J. (2016). Teaching mathematics through inquiry: A continuing professional development programme design. Educational Designer, 3(9). https://www.educationaldesigner.org/ed/volume3/issue9/
Cordingley, P., Higgins, S., Greany, T., Buckler, N., Coles-Jordan, D., Crisp, B., Saunders, L. & Coe, R. (2015). Developing great teaching: Lessons from the international reviews into effective professional development. Teacher Development Trust.
Dorier, J., & Garcia, F. J. (2013). Challenges and opportunities for the implementation of inquiry-based learning in day-to-day teaching. ZDM: The International Journal of Mathematics Education, 45, 837–849.
Fontana, A., & Frey, J. H. (2000). The interview: From structured questions to negotiated text. In N. K. Denzin, & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of Qualitative Research (2nd ed., pp. 645–672).
Fullan, M. (2007). The new meaning of educational change (4th ed.). Teachers College Press.
Garet, M., Porter, A., Desimone, L., Birman, B., & Yoon, K. S. (2001). What makes professional development effective? Results from a national sample of teachers. American Educational Research Journal, 38(4), 915–945.
Gee, J. P. (2003). What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy. Palgrave Macmillan.
Glazer, E. M., Hannafin, M. J., Polly, D., & Rich, R. (2009). Factors and interactions influencing technology integration during situated professional development in an elementary school. Computers in the Schools, 26(1), 21–39.
Golding, J. (2017). Mathematics teachers’ capacity for change. Oxford Review of Education, 43(4), 502–517.
Goos, M., Dole, S., & Makar, K. (2007). Designing professional development to support teachers’ learning in complex environments. Mathematics Teacher Education and Development, 8, 23–47.
Goos, M., Stillman, G., & Vale, C. (2017). Teaching secondary school mathematics: Research and practice for the 21st century. Allen & Unwin.
Greenhalgh, S. P., & Koehler, M. J. (2017). 28 days later: Twitter hashtags as “just in time” teacher professional development. TechTrends, 61(3), 273–281.
Guba, E. G. (1990). The paradigm dialog. SAGE Publications.
Guskey, T. R. (2000). Evaluating professional development. Corwin Press.
Guskey, T. R. (2002). Professional development and teacher change. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 8(3–4), 381–391.
Hodgen, J., & Johnson, D. C. (2003). Teacher reflection, identity and belief change in the context of Primary CAME. In A. Millett, M. Brown, & M. Askew (Eds.), Primary mathematics and the developing professional. Springer.
Hunzicker, J. (2011). Effective professional development for teachers: A checklist. Professional Development in Education, 37(2), 177–179.
Jaworski, B. (2003). Research practice into/influencing mathematics teaching and learning development: Towards a theoretical framework based on co-learning partnerships. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 54(2–3), 249–282.
Jaworski, B. (2006). Theory and practice in mathematics teaching development: Critical inquiry as a mode of learning in teaching. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 9(2), 187–211.
Jaworski, B., & Huang, R. (2014). Teachers and didacticians: Key stakeholders in the processes of developing mathematics teaching. ZDM Mathematics Education, 46(2), 173-188.
Kennedy, A. (2014). Models of continuing professional development: A framework for analysis. Professional Development in Education, 40(3), 336-351.
Koellner, K., & Jacobs, J. (2015). Distinguishing models of professional development: The case of an adaptive model’s impact on teachers’ knowledge, instruction, and student achievement. Journal of Teacher Education, 66(1), 51–67.
Koelsch, L. E. (2013). Reconceptualizing the member check interview. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 12, 168–179.
Krainer, K. (2001). Teachers’ growth is more than the growth of individual teachers: The case of Gisela. In F. L. Lin & T. J. Cooney (Eds.), Making sense of mathematics teacher education (pp. 271–293). Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Krueger, R. A., & Casey, M. A. (2015). Focus groups: A practical guide for applied research (5th ed.). SAGE Publications.
Lerman, S., & Zehetmeier, S. (2008). Face-to-face communities and networks of practising mathematics teachers. In G. M. Lloyd & O. Chapman (Eds.), International handbook of mathematics teacher education: Volume 3 (2nd ed., pp. 133–153).
Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalisitic inquiry. SAGE Publications.
Lotter, C., Yow, J. A., & Peters, T. T. (2014). Building a community of practice around inquiry instruction through a professional development program. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 12, 1–23.
Loucks-Horsley, S., Stiles, K., Mundry, S., Love, N., & Hewson, P. (2010). Designing professional development for teachers of science and mathematics (3rd ed.). Corwin Press.
Luft, J. A. (2001). Changing inquiry practices and beliefs: The impact of an inquiry-based professional development programme on beginning and experienced secondary science teachers. International Journal of Science Education, 23(5), 517–534.
McLaughlin, M. W., & Talbert, J. E. (2001). Professional communities and the work of high school teaching. University of Chicago Press.
Meirink, J. A., Meijer, P. C., & Verloop, N. (2007). A closer look at teachers' individual learning in collaborative settings. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 13(2), 145–164.
Mercer, N. (1995). The guided construction of knowledge: Talk amongst teachers and learners. Multilingual Matters.
Patton, M. Q. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods (2nd ed.). SAGE Publications.
Putnam, R. T., & Borko, H. (2000). What do new views of knowledge and thinking have to say about research on teacher learning? Educational Researcher, 29(1), 4–15.
Riel, M. (2000). Education in the 21st Century: Just-in-time learning or learning communities. In Education and the Arab World Challenges of the Next Millennium (pp. 137-160). Emirates Center for Strategic Studies and Research.
Russo, J., & Hopkins, S. (2019). Teachers’ perceptions of students when observing lessons involving challenging tasks. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 17(4), 759-779.
Schoenfeld, A. H. (2013). Classroom observations in theory and practice. ZDM: The International Journal of Mathematics Education, 45(4), 607–621.
Schrum, L. (1999). Technology professional development for teachers. Educational Technology Research and Development, 47(4), 83–90.
Spillane, J. P. (1999). External reform initiatives and teachers' efforts to reconstruct their practice: The mediating role of teachers' zones of enactment. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 31(2), 143–175.
Spillane, J. P., & Zeuli, J. S. (1999). Reform and teaching: Exploring patterns of practice in the context of national and state mathematics reforms. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 21(1), 1–27.
Sprott, R. A. (2019). Factors that foster and deter advanced teachers’ professional development. Teaching and Teacher Education, 77, 321–331.
Stoll, L., Harris, A., & Handscomb, G. (2012). Great professional development which leads to great pedagogy: Nine claims from research. National College for School Leadership.
Sullivan, P., Mousley, J., & Zevenbergen, R. (2006). Teacher actions to maximize mathematics learning opportunities in heterogeneous classrooms. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 4(1), 117-143.
Supovitz, J. A., Mayer, D. P., & Kahle, J. B. (2000). Promoting inquiry-based instructional practice: The longitudinal impact of professional development in the context of systemic reform. Education Policy, 14(3), 331–356.
Swan, M. (2006). Collaborative learning in mathematics: A challenge to our beliefs and practices. National Institute for Advanced and Continuing Education (NIACE) National Research and Development Centre for Adult Literacy and Numeracy (NRDC).
Vavasseur, C. B., & MacGregor, S. K. (2008). Extending content-focused professional development through online communities of practice. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 40(4), 517–536.
Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society. Harvard University Press.
Wenger, E., McDermott, R. A., & Snyder, W. (2002). Cultivating communities of practice: A guide to managing knowledge. Harvard Business Press.
Yin, R. K. (2003). Case study research: Design and methods. SAGE Publications.