Examining the Change of Pre-Service Middle School Mathematics Teachers’ Questioning Approaches through Clinical Interviews

Makbule Gözde Didiş Kabar, Berna Tataroğlu Taşdan

Abstract


The aim of this study was to investigate the types of questions used by pre-service middle school teachers’ (PSMTs’) and whether or not PSMTs’ questioning approaches change towards probing student’s thinking during their clinical interview experiences. This study was conducted during an undergraduate course offered for middle-school mathematics teachers at a public university during the spring semester of the 2017-2018 academic year. The participants in this study consisted of 22 PSMTs who worked in nine groups of two to three. The PSMTs conducted interviews with middle school students from Grades 6, 7 or 8 three times over the length of the course. The data sources for this study were the transcriptions of the audiotaped interviews conducted by PSMTs. The findings displayed that the PSMTs used six different types of questions over three interviews ranging from yes-no questions to probing questions. The findings showed that while the interviewers in four groups changed their questioning approaches in terms of probing student’s thinking, the interviewer of one group changed his questioning approach from checklisting towards leading student’s thinking. Furthermore, the interviewers in four groups did not change their questioning approaches from the first interview to the third interview. This study has implications for mathematics teacher educators concerning the courses designed for changing PSMTs’ questioning approaches. The implications of the findings are discussed.


Keywords


Clinical interview; Student thinking; Pre-service middle school mathematics teachers;questioning

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ambrose, R, Jacobs, V., Crespo, S., Nicol, C., Moyer, P., & Haydar, H. (2004). Exploring the use of clinical interviews in teacher development. In D. E. McDougall & J. A. Ross (Eds.). (2004). Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (Vol 1., pp. 89-91). Toronto: Ontario Institute of Studies in Education/University of Toronto.

An, S., & Wu, Z. (2012). Enhancing mathematics teachers’ knowledge of students’ thinking from assessing and analyzing misconceptions in homework. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 10(3), 717–753.

Ball, D., & Cohen, D. (1999). Developing practice, developing practitioners: Toward a practice-based theory of professional education. In G. Sykes & L. Darling-Hammond (Eds.), Teaching as the learning profession: Handbook of policy and practice (pp. 3-32). San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Boaler, J., & Brodie, K. (2004). The importance, nature and impact of teacher questions. In D. E. McDougall & J. A. Ross (Eds.). (2004). Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (Vol 1., pp. 774-782). Toronto: Ontario Institute of Studies in Education/University of Toronto.

Brualdi, A. C. (1998). Classroom questions. Practical Assesment, Research & Evaluation, 6(6), 1-3.

Burns, M. (1985). The role of questioning. The Arithmetic Teacher, 32(6), 14-16.

Cotton, K. (1989). Classroom questioning, close-up #5. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory.

Crespo, S., & Nicol, C. (2003). Learning to investigate students’ mathematical thinking: The role of student interviews. In N. A. Pateman, B. Dougherty, & J. T. Zilliox (Eds.), Proceedings of the 27th International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education Conference (Vol. 2, pp. 261–268). Honolulu.

Dunphy, E. (2010). Exploring young children's (mathematical) thinking: Preservice teachers reflect on the use of the one-to-one interview. International Journal of Early Years Education, 18(4), 331-347.

Even, R., & Tirosh, D. (2002). Teacher knowledge and understanding of students’ mathematical learning. In L. D. English (Ed.), Handbook of international research in mathematics education (pp. 219–240). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Fennema, E., Carpenter, T. P., Franke, M. L., Levi, L., Jacobs, V. R. & Empson, S. B. (1996). A longitudinal study of learning to use children's thinking in mathematics instruction. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 27(4), 403-434.

Franke, M. L., Webb, N. M., Chan, A. G., Ing, M., Freund, D., Battey, D. (2009). Teacher questioning to elicit students’ mathematical thinking in elementary school classrooms. Journal of Teacher Education, 60, 380-392.

Groth, R. E., Bergner, J. A., & Burgess, C. R. (2016). An exploration of prospective teachers' learning of clinical interview techniques. Mathematics Teacher Education and Development, 18(2), 48-71.

Harrop, A., & Swinson, J. (2003). Teachers' questions in the infant, junior and secondary school. Educational Studies, 29(1), 49-57.

Haydar, H. (2017). Elementary mathematics teachers celebrating student voice: The clinical ınterview again and again. In Proceedings of International Symposium Elementary Mathematics Teaching SEMT (Vol. 17, pp. 197-205). Prague, Czech Republic: SEMT.

Heng, M. A., & Sudarshan, A. (2013). “Bigger number means you plus!” – Teachers’ learning to use clinical interviews to understand students’ mathematical thinking. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 83(3), 471-485.

Hiebert, J., & Wearne, D. (1993). Instructional tasks, classroom discourse, and students’ learning in second-grade arithmetic. American Educational Research Journal, 30(2), 393–425.

Jenkins, O. F. (2010). Developing teachers’ knowledge of students as learners of mathematics through structured interviews. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 13, 141-154.

Kawanaka, T., & Stigler, J. W. (1999). Teachers' use of questions in eighth-grade mathematics classrooms in Germany, Japan, and the United States. Mathematical thinking and Learning, 1(4), 255-278.

Latham, A. (1997). Asking students the right questions. Educational Leadership, 84-85.

Mason, J. (2014). Questioning in mathematics education. In S. Lerman (Ed.), Encyclopedia of mathematics education (pp. 513–519). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.

McDonough, A., Clarke, B., & Clarke, D. M. (2002). Understanding, assessing and developing children’s mathematical thinking: The power of a one-to-one interview for preservice teachers in providing insights into appropriate pedagogical practices. International Journal of Educational Research, 37(2), 211-226.

Moyer, S., & Milewicz, E. (2002). Learning to questions: Categories of questioning used by preservice teachers during diagnostic mathematics interviews. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 5, 293–315.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [NCTM] (2014). Principles to actions: Executive summary. Retrieved from https://www.nctm.org/uploadedFiles/Standards_and_Positions/PtAExecutiveSummary.pdf

Newton, L. D. (2001). Supporting understanding. Using teachers’ questions in the elementary school. Teachers and Curriculum, 5, 6-10.

Paoletti, T., Krupnik, V., Dimitrios, P., Olsen, J., Fukawa-Connelly, T., & Weber, K. (2018). Teacher questioning and invitations to participate in advanced mathematics lectures. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 98(1), 1-17.

Sahin, A., & Kulm, G. (2008). Sixth grade mathematics teachers’ intentions and use of probing, guiding, and factual questions. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 11(3), 221-242.

Schorr, R. Y. (2001). A study of the use of clinical interviewing with prospective teachers. In M. van den Heuvel-Panhuizen (Ed.), Proceedings of the 25th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (Vol. 4, pp. 153–160). Utrecht, The Netherlands: Freudenthal Institute.

Schwartz, C. (2015). Developing the practice of teacher questioning through a K-2 elementary mathematics field experience. Investigations in Mathematics Learning, 7(3), 30-5

Stockero, S. L., Rupnow, R. L., & Pascoe, A. E. (2017). Learning to notice important student mathematical thinking in complex classroom interactions. Teaching and Teacher Education, 63, 384-395.

Vacc, N. N. (1993). Implementing the 'professional standards for teaching mathematics': Questioning in the mathematics classroom. Arithmetic Teacher, 41(2), 88-91.

van den Kieboom, L. A., Magiera, M. T., & Moyer, J. C. (2014). Exploring the relationship between K-8 prospective teachers’ algebraic thinking proficiency and the questions they pose during diagnostic algebraic thinking interviews. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 17(5), 429-461.

Weiland, I., Hudson, R., & Amador, J. (2014). Preservice formative assessment interviews: The development of competent questioning. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 12, 329-352.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.