Deconstructing ‘good practice’ teaching videos: an analysis of pre-service teachers’ reflections
Keywords:pre-service teachers, teacher beliefs, video analysis, mathematical knowledge for teaching
Video clips of mathematics lessons are used extensively in pre-service teacher education and continuing professional development activities. Given course time constraints, an opportunity to critique these videos is not always possible. Because of this, and because pre-service teachers make extensive use of material found during internet searches, much of it purporting to exemplify ‘good’ practice, we were interested to know what sense they make of such material. By encouraging pre-service teachers to reflect and comment on the practices being promoted in this way, we wanted to hear what they focused on, their initial views of the teaching and learning shown in the video, and how their views were formed and affected by engaging in discussion. Findings indicate that pre-service teachers’ responses to the material were dominated by their beliefs about mathematics and that engaging in discussion enabled them to appreciate the interpretations of others.
Advisory Committee on Mathematics Education (ACME), (2012). ACME Response to Draft Primary Curriculum. Retrieved February 23, 2013, from http://www.acme-uk.org/news/news-items-repository/2012/8/acme-response-to-draft-primary-curriculum.
Askew, M. (2011). Transforming Primary Mathematics, London: Routledge.
Ball, D., and Cohen, D. (1999). Developing practice, developing practitioners. In L. Darling-Hammond and G. Sykes (Eds.), Teaching as the learning profession. Handbook of Policy and Practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Beswick, K. and Muir, T. (2013). Making connections: Lessons on the use of video in pre-service teacher education. Mathematics Teacher Education and Development, 15 (2), 27-51.
Blomberg, G., Renkl, A., Sherin, M., Borko, H. and Seidel, T. (2013). Five research-based heuristics for using video in pre-service teacher education. Journal for Educational Research Online, 5(1), 90–114.
British Educational Research Association. (2011). Ethical Guidelines for Educational Research. Retrieved May 3, 2012, from https://www.bera.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/BERA-Ethical-Guidelines-2011.pdf.
Brown, M., Askew, M., Baker, D., Denvir, H. and Millet, A. (1998). Is the National Numeracy Strategy research based? Research Review, 46(4), 362–385.
Brown, M. (2010). Swings and Roundabouts. In I. Thompson (Ed.) Issues in Teaching Numeracy. 2nd edn. Buckingham: OUP.
Charmaz, K. (2011). A Constructivist Grounded Theory Analysis of Losing and Regaining a Valued Self. In F. J. Wertz, K. Charmaz, L.M. McMullen, Josselson, R, Anderson, R., and E., McSpadden (Eds.) Five Ways of doing Qualitative Analysis: Phenomenological Psychology, Grounded Theory, Discourse Analysis, Narrative Research and Intuitive Inquiry (pp. 165-204). New York: The Guildford Press.
Charmaz, K. (2007). Constructing grounded theory. London: Sage.
Clarke,D., Hollingsworth,H. and Gorur, R.(2013). Facilitating reflection and action: the possible contribution of video to Mathematics Teacher Education. Journal of Education,1(3), 94-121.
Coles, A. (2013). Using video for professional development :the role of the discussion facilitator. Mathematics Teacher Education 16, 165-184.
Department for Education and Employment. (DfEE). (1998). The NNS framework for teaching mathematics from reception to year 6. London. DfEE.
Department for Education. (2013). Mathematics programmes of study: key stages 1 and 2 National curriculum in England. Crown publishing.
Ernest, P. (1991). The Philosophy of Mathematics Education, London: Falmer Press.
Hanson, R. (2013). The Challenges of Implementing the New Primary National Curriculum. Retrieved February 23, 2014, from http://authenticmaths.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/The-Challenges-of-Implementing-the-New-Primary-National-Curriculum.pdf
Herbst,P. and Kosko,K. (2014). Using representations of practice to elicit mathematics teachers’ tacit knowledge of practice: a comparison of responses to animations and videos. Math teacher Education 17, 515-537.
Jaworski, B. (1990). Video as a tool for teachers’ professional development. Professional Development in Education. 16(1), 60-65.
Lampert M, and Ball, D. (1998). Mathematics ,Teaching and multimedia: Investigations of real practice. New York: Teachers College Press.
Lin,P., J. (2005). Using research-based video-cases to help pre-service teachers conceptualise a contemporary view of mathematics teaching. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 3, 351-377.
Llinares, S. and Valls, J. (2010). Prospective primary mathematics teachers’ learning from online discussions in a virtual video-based environment. Journal of Mathemetics Teacher Education, 13(2), 177-196.
McNamara, O., Roberts, L., Basit, T.N., and Brown, T. (2002). Rites of Passage in Initial Teacher Training: Ritual, Performance, Ordeal and the Numeracy Skills Test. British Educational Research Journal, (28), 863-78.
Philipp, R.A., Ambrose, R., Lamb, L.L.C., Sowder, J.T., Schappelle, B.P., Sowder, L., Thanheiser, E. and Chauvot, J. (2007). Effects of early field experiences on mathematical content knowledge and beliefs of prospective elementary school teachers: An experimental study. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education,38 (5), 438-476.
Rowland, T. (2014) The Knowledge Quartet: the genesis and application of a framework for analysing mathematics teaching and deepening teachers’ mathematics knowledge. SISYPHUS Journal of Education, 1(3), 15-43.
Rowland, T., Turner, F. and Thwaites, A. (2014). Research into teacher knowledge: a stimulus for development in teacher education practice. ZDM: The International Journal on Mathematics Education, 46(2).
Santagata,R. and Guarino,J. (2011). Using video to teach future teachers to learn from teaching.ZDM Mathematics Education, 43, 133-145.
Sherin, M. (2007). New perspectives on the role of video in teacher education. In J. Brophy (Ed.), Using video in teacher education (pp. 1-28). Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Sherin, M. and van Es, E. (2009). Effects of video club participation on teachers’ professional vision. Journal of Teacher Education, 60(1), 20-37.
Skemp, R. R. (1978). Relational understanding and instrumental understanding. Mathematic Teaching, 77, 20–26.
Star, J. R. and Strictland, S. K. (2008). Learning to observe: using video to improve pre-service mathematics teachers’ ability to notice. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education,11, 107-125.
Taylor, P. M. (2002). Implementing the standards: Keys to establishing positive professional inertia in preservice mathematics teachers. School Science and Mathematics, 102(3), 137–142.
Thompson, I. (2009). Mental calculation. Mathematics Teaching, (213) 40-42.
Thompson, I. (2012). The Draft National Curriculum for Primary Mathematics. Mathematics Teaching (230), 15-16.
Zaslavsky, O. (2014). Thinking with and through examples. In S. Oesterle, C. Nicol, P. Liljedah and D. Allan (Eds.) Proceedings of the 38th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, (1), 21-34. Vancouver, Canada: PME.